The 9th Tensions of Europe conference

Decoding Europe: Technological Pasts in the Digital Age

Keynote speeches

Tensions in the web archive — How the forms of archiving in national web archives may affect the writing of European history

Niels Brügger

When investigating the ‘technological pasts in the digital age’ — the sub-title of the 2019 conference — it is obvious that the histories of Europe that we will be writing in the years to come must rely heavily on digital source material. Parts of this material may be digitised versions of analog material, while other parts are born digital since they exist in digital form only, such as the online web which has played a pivotal role in our communicative infrastructure for the last 25 years. And yet other parts may be what I term reborn digital, that is born digital material that has been collected and preserved and that has changed fundamentaly in this process; this is the case with the archived web.

Based on the distinction between digitised, born digital and reborn digital this keynote starts by mapping some of the tensions that are inherent in Europe’s reborn digital source material, namely the archived web. Throughout Europe (and beyond) the online web has been collected, preserved and made available in so many different ways that future historians in the European countries will have access to source material of an uneven quality: some countries have preserved entire national web domains, others have preserved parts of these (based on a variety of criteria), and yet others have not preserved anything at all. After having mapped the major trends and tensions related to the creation of national web collections it is discussed how these different forms of available archival web records can affect the national histories to be written, not to mention how these tensions will affect the writing of trans-national European histories.

What Colors the Historical Record?

Bethany Nowviskie

In 1821, Scottish flower painter Patrick Syme published a sensitive and delicately-rendered update to mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner’s taxonomic Nomenclature of Colors. Syme’s book contains the precisely defined hues and color names that natural historians, explorers, and other agents of empire used throughout the 19th century to create lasting records of a now-vanished world. This book shaped, for instance, Charles Darwin’s formal chromatic vocabulary on the voyage of the Beagle, and it influenced not only the colors that were cataloged in the past, but perhaps even what it became possible for Europeans to see — both then and now. The Smithsonian Institution has recently digitized, color-corrected, and re-printed Symes’ edition — and designer and self-professed “data geek” Nicholas Rougeaux has likewise remediated an Internet Archive-digitized copy of the book into an interactive, browsable website, featuring examples of the the Syme-Werner pigments in modern-day photographs of animals, vegetables, and minerals. At a conference on “decoding Europe,” at which historians convene to investigate our shared “technological pasts in the digital age,” this keynote will speculate outward from the historical Nomenclature of Colors to its place in networked digital libraries, biodiversity data repositories, and artificial intelligence approaches to the historical record. How might we use machine learning to identify references to these standardized colors in images and texts throughout Western library collections, and place them into humble conversation with indigenous perspectives on creatures living and lost? And how might the work of archivists, librarians, environmental humanities scholars, and historians of technology — done in the ethical context of indigenous data sovereignty and in deep partnership with communities — influence our future ability to study the shades of the past? 

Media Archeology presentation


On June 30, 2012, the X.25 based network Transpac used by the Minitel network is shut down. This brings to an end the exploitation of the Minitel in France. Minitel is a french videotex online service accessible through telephone lines produced since 1980. It is considered as one of the world’s most successful pre-world wide web online services. By means of a modem, a keyboard and a 9-inch monitor with no storage capacity, Minitel users had access to a thousands of services: press, directories, banks, chats…  From 1980 to 2012, Minitel was a social network forerunner and public service more or less controlled by the French State. Minitel was also a suitable environment for the artists who created artworks especially designed for the media. Indeed, several artists operated within the network and generated artistic and literary creations. Since 1983, Camille Philibert and Jacques-Elie Chabert write three Minitel novels (ACSOO, Vertiges, L’Objet Perdu), in 1985, Frédéric Develay and Orlan produce the « Art-Accès » magazine and in that same year, Eduardo Kac composes the Videotext Poems. Minitel was wrongly portrayed as a direct competitor of the Web. The service experienced a sharp slowdown when the Web began to expand and Orange S.A was forced to shut it down, thereby denying all the services but also depriving the artworks from their physical medium.

And now, what should we do? Forget it in a cellar or an attic? Throw it in the garbage? Sell it on ebay? Use it as a decoration?

Experimenting since 2016, PAMAL has been activating a new Minitel network in 2019: WIPITEL. An archive of old and recent telematic works: 3615 LOVE. A Minitel instant messaging system (under the radar): 3615 CHAT. And a Minitel portal: WIPIBOOK. Our keynote will show you all this.

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